You can, however, “sort by flag” so that all flagged messages appear at the top or bottom of a mailbox’s list of messages. Pine and Mulberry support more than 5 keywords and are able to display multiple keywords for each message. If you would like to be able to use more than five keywords in SeaMonkey Suite or Thunderbird, please vote for Bug – allow arbitrary number of labels. This is discussed on the Known Issues for Mozilla 1. This is easy in Pine and Mulberry. Changing the Fcc is easy in Pine and Mulberry. I prefer to have threads expanded because often there are unrelated topics buried inside a collapsed thread. Mulberry for Linux and Pine on any platform can be set up to use an alternate editor.
Open Access funded by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Under a Creative Commons license open access Abstract Although degradation of iron gall ink containing paper has been scientifically studied for almost years, we still do not have a good understanding of the kinetics of the process. While many studies focussed on model samples to avoid the inhomogeneity of real historic samples or the need for sampling, this research was conducted on a selection of real documents.
The analytical methods were optimised such that sample consumption was minimised and errors and uncertainties were evaluated. The results show that the rate of degradation, measured as change in the degree of polymerisation of cellulose in paper beneath ink, can be described in Arrhenius terms, and that the apparent activation energy for the process depends on the moisture content in the material.
For this reason the accurate dating of ink entries has always been of high interest for the document examiner and a large number of methods have been developed throughout the years  [5.
I recently had a very unproductive E-mail exchange with Kodak in regards to their printers default behavior to disable my printer as soon a low ink notification shows up. Any chance anyone knows how they monitor the ink level in the ESP series , or even more importantly, how to override it, so I can continue to print until the cartridge is actually empty?
Resetting the cartridge counter [if one has a defective chip or a manually refilled cartridge]: Apparently,it is a circuit that carries the count of pages printed to a counter. The instructions I read were to ‘insert the blade under the line. I had to do it in daylight; you may have better eyes.
Process[ edit ] Animation productions begin by deciding on a story. The oral or literary source material must then be converted into an animation film script, from which the storyboard is derived. The storyboard has an appearance somewhat similar to a comic book, and it shows the sequence of shots as consecutive sketches that also indicate transitions, camera angles, and framing.
The images allow the animation team to plan the flow of the plot and the composition of the imagery.
Céline Weyermann, Joseph Almog, Jürgen Bügler and Antonio A. Cantu, Minimum requirements for application of ink dating methods based on solvent analysis in casework, Forensic Science International, , , (52), ().
Contact Ink Dating There are four major approaches each approach is a group of methods used for dating inks on documents: Ink Aging Approach Various methods have been published to measure aging processes that occur in ink on documents. Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr.
Cantu in the s. Ink Availability Approach The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks as well as other materials used to produce the document — paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc. Ink Comparison Approach 3. Such intra-comparisons of inks may reveal that the questioned entries were not written contemporaneously with the other entries in the file document.
Comparison of the contested document to other similar documents from the same time frame — If other similar documents from the same source and pertinent time frame are available for comparison with the contested document, then: The presence of the same printing defects on the contested document and comparison documents or the same patterns of trash marks or incidental marks on photocopies or laser prints may yield valuable information concerning the dating of the contested document.
The physical optical and chemical examinations of writing inks, as well as other materials used in the production of documents paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, typewriter ribbon ink, carbon paper ink, stamp pad ink, etc. The order of execution of certain elements of a document Writing ink sequencing — Examining intersections areas where two or more pen lines cross to determine the order of writing it may prove that a particular entry was added at a later time Sequencing of indented impressions and writings — Examining intersections areas where the visible ink lines cross the indentations may determine the order of writing and thus prove that a particular entry was added at a later time.
Paper folds — It is often possible to determine whether an ink line that intersects a paper fold was written before or after the paper was folded. Offset marks — When two pieces of paper are pressed together, marks such as writing and printing may be transferred from one to another.
Herbchronology Dating methods in archaeology[ edit ] Same as geologists or paleontologists , archaeologists are also brought to determine the age of ancient materials, but in their case, the areas of their studies are restricted to the history of both ancient and recent humans. Thus, to be considered as archaeological, the remains, objects or artifacts to be dated must be related to human activity.
It is commonly assumed that if the remains or elements to be dated are older than the human species, the disciplines which study them are sciences such geology or paleontology, among some others.
ink dating methods. The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper.
Click for pdf version Erich J. This paper describes an independent assessment of the reliability of techniques currently in use in the United States for determining the relative age of writing inks. Although considerable practice and experience was required to become proficient in the use of these procedures, it was found that all of the methods are useful for estimating the age of inks on questioned documents.
Opinions of ink dating chemists, both government and private, differ on the reliability of the above described ink aging methods. Therefore, before applying any of these methods to actual case work the author conducted an independent evaluation of the reliability of the R-Ratio, Percent Extraction, Dye-Ratio and Accelerated Aging techniques for estimating the age of writing ink on documents.
Six experiments were conducted using the following procedures. R-Ratio and Percent Extractions 1. Samples of the known and questioned ink are removed from the paper using a hollow needle punch with a plunger to push the sample out of the needle. Caution should be taken to not get any combination from such things as other inks, inks from the opposite side of the document, or printed stamps.
Place the plugs in a vial. Inject microliters of a weak solvent like n-butanol, into the vial and make sure all the plugs are covered.
6 Things an OB/GYN Needs to Know About a Patient with ASD
Just so you know, this comment makes you sound very arrogant and intolerant yourself. Anonymous Just so you know, this comment makes you sound arrogant and intolerant of my ass. It is deeply offended, so please kiss and make up. How is that not arrogance? You defend Richard Dawkins much like christians defend God. However different strokes for different folks, so how about we all just try to get along instead eh?
With this method the forensic analysis determines the components in the ink, compares them against a library of standards and then allows an opinion regarding the first date that particular ink was manufactured commercially available. The dynamic approach is very useful in determining if a pen ink was placed on a document on its purported date, i. There are only a handful of forensic scientists capable of performing these tests and laboratories equipped with the proper tools.
What are the typical ink analysis procedures? Forensic ink testing is performed on Original Documents and may include: The proposed tests are minimally invasive, the latter two involving the placement of pinhole perforations in the text, paper and signatures on the Original Document. The pinholes themselves are not typically easily visible unless the document is held up to light, and the testing has no negative effect on handwriting analysis.
All of the proposed testing follows Court approved testing methods, e. Why is ink analysis allowed if a document is in question?
The Lute Society: Building Lute Original Methods
Evidence may not be visible to the naked eye Ink Testing and Paper Examinations How can ink analysis and paper examinations help determine when a document was produced? The chemical analysis of writing and printing inks, as well as paper, can be invaluable when trying to prove whether a document is fraudulent. Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document.
One line rowle with the line upon it Two staples or bank hooks Two rules of two foot apiece Three mallets Two spare planing irons If a joiner had these tools, then a lutemaker could certainly have had them. A Spnaish inventory of a violero”s workshop tools is reproduced in Lute News 71, p. There is also the inventory of tools of a lutemaker in Leiden, published in Vlam, Chr. Surviving tools A few tools survive from my chosen period and indeed from much earlier; some Roman planes survive, as do Viking ones, and they seem remarkably familiar to the modern carpenter in their design.
Some of the Viking tools have been shown to be steel-tipped, for instance iron plane blades with steel edges forged on; plane blades were still being made like this in the 19th century, which helps to justify my use of Victorian blades for my reconstructed tools. Nautical disasters have preserved useful examples of preserved early tools, for instance planes and a carpenter”s rule survive from the Mary Rose, sunk in and partly recovered from the bed of the Solent in Jointer plane from Mary Rose Rule from Mary Rose It is interesting to note that that the Mary Rose rule has an eighth of an inch as its smallest division.
This gives an insight into the attitude to measurement in an age when every artefact was custom made:
A younger Sheldon in Sheldon at age 9, in “I’m not crazy, my mother had me tested. Sheldon Lee  Cooper  , B. Originally from East Texas , Sheldon started college at the age of 11, receiving his first Ph. Sheldon was involved in numerous experiments as a wunderkind, such as his plan to provide free electricity for his hometown by building a nuclear reactor – a plan stopped by government pen pushers claiming it’s illegal to store yellowcake uranium in a garden shed.
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One, dating from June , is written in French, and describes the Germans’ secret ink formula, showing they had cracked the enemy’s code. A document written in French reveals they had cracked the Germans’ secret formula for making invisible ink Another describes how to carry invisible ink in your clothes. The best means for developing are iodite of potassium. Instructions include ‘examine through powerful beams of light directed on surface at different angles’ and ‘run a warm iron over the surface’.
One of the documents is an extract from a pamphlet written by a Theodore Kytka, a San Francisco handwriting expert, which was designed to teach postal inspectors how to recognise invisible ink. Painstakingly-detailed documents describe the different methods which could be used to read documents written in invisible ink It lists 50 scenarios in which the ink could be used, including ‘placing writings under postage stamps, wrapping messages in medicine capsules and engraving messages Mix five of drams of copper acetol arsenate and add three ounces acetone.
Add one pint of amyl alcohol fusil-oil. Heat in water bath – steam rising will dissolve the sealing material of its mucilage, wax or oil 4. The mixture ‘may be carried for example in handkerchiefs or starched collars’.
Without further ado, the list… Update April 20, Org, please visit our transcription jobs page. Update December 2, Sell your services as a freelancer.
Ink dating is a highly specialized forensic examination and considered to be one of the most accurate and reliable methods to help determine the age of a document. Ink Dating and Ink Aging An ink formulation can be identified to a specific manufacturer to ascertain the first date of commercial availability.
Yao Mengqi ‘s copy. Traditionally, the bulk of the study of calligraphy is composed of copying strictly exemplary works from the apprentice’s master or from reputed calligraphers, thus learning them by rote. The master showing the ‘right way’ to draw items, which the apprentice have to copy strictly, continuously, until the move becomes instinctive and the copy perfect. Deviation from the model is seen as a failure. Correct strokes, stroke order , character structure, balance, and rhythm are essential in calligraphy.
A student would also develop their skills in traditional Chinese arts , as familiarity and ability in the arts contributes to their calligraphy. Since the development of regular script , nearly all calligraphers have started their study by imitating exemplary models of regular script. The Eight Principles of Yong refers to the eight different strokes in the character, which some argue summarizes the different strokes in regular script.
How the brush is held depends on the calligrapher and which calligraphic genre is practiced.
From Ancient Alchemy Recipes to Modern Chemistry
Enter Characters from Left: The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper. The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases. Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating.
These ink dating methods include the comparison of the examined ink to a known library of standards, commonly called the library approach, the detection of chemical date tags placed in the ink purposefully by the manufacturer, commonly called the date tag method, and also the determination of the type of ink writing instrument used.
The Rules Revisited I’ve dated countless women and it has always amazed me how little they know about men. If nothing else, this blog is an outlet for voicing my astonishment at the typical female’s ignorance of the male mindset. At most, it is a reliable source of advice for women who want to improve their chances with the opposite sex. In another post I ranked it the single most important aspect of your external attractiveness to a man. Instead I want to point out a few things that women might not realize about their weight: Shape matters more than size.
We’re all aware that some women seem to have great figures despite being a little larger than what most consider ideal. This is because a woman’s proportions matter more than her overall weight; her shape matters more than her size. Her waist-to-hip ratio, or breast and butt shape or size relative to the rest of her body can be attractive to a man despite the fact that she is “overweight.
Incidentally, in-shape black women blow away the competition when it comes to having great figures, which in most cases completely compensates for imperfect hair. Shape matters more than size – up to a certain point. While occasionally they will be sincere, you should think twice and make a strong effort to be honest with yourself before believing them.